What is Grain?

It is the name given to grains, wheat, barley-like products after they are harvested. Grains are the most consumed foods in the world. It is used in many different types of dishes. It is also processed and consumed as bread.

It is among the most grown foods in the world, as the growing conditions of the products, which are grain raw materials, are suitable almost everywhere. Grains are also used in the production of products such as flour, bread, pasta. It also has a nutritious and satiating feature.

Type of Grains 

Corn, wheat, soybean grown in hot regions and wheat, barley, oat, and rye grown in cooler climates are the main grain types.

Benefits of Grain Products

The foods in the cereal food group make a significant contribution to the development of babies and children. Grain products constitute an important part of the basic nutrients that should be taken daily for adults. The main benefits of cereal products can be listed as follows.

It contributes to growth for children.

They are essential nutrients for a balanced diet. The vitamins in it are of great importance for the body to maintain its nutritional balance.

It can be a problem for preschool children to eat a completely balanced meal every day. So the cereal products you make may not be very appetizing for him. For this, you can make more enjoyable and nutritious foods. You can make healthy sandwiches and diversify it. Thus, they will not need to eat hamburger-style harmful foods in their meals.

Grain products should be part of daily life. The types of bread that have the most health benefits are rye and whole grain breads. You can get all the nutrients you need from these varieties.

Corn is an annual agricultural plant, especially in the unsaturated oil group, that can be grown in very humid climates.

Corn, whose homeland is South America, was brought to Europe by sailors after the discovery of the Americas. From there, it is thought that this plant is called corn in our language, since it was brought to our country from the African continent via Egypt. Turkey’s climate is quite suitable for corn, so it is grown in a wide area.

Corn, which is a widely consumed cereal product in our country, is produced almost everywhere. Corn is known as a hoe plant, and it usually leaves a grass-free and clean field for the plant that comes after it.

Corn grows on sandy and light soils. The height of the corn plant is between 1.5-3 m. For this, it likes deep, filtered, well-ventilated soils. The land to be planted with corn is plowed deeply with a plow in autumn. Depending on the weather and grass conditions in the spring, the soil is either plowed again or the soil is worked superficially with tools such as crowbars and cultivators.

For the sowing process, first of all, a selection should be made in accordance with the purpose and the region. If it will not be used as human food and the land can be irrigated, planting hybrid varieties will yield good yields. One of the most important factors in the selection of varieties is the growing period.

Wheat is an annual herbaceous plant cultivated all over the world. It prefers a continental climate. It is the second most cultivated grain worldwide, along with corn. Rice follows them.

Wheat; Flour is a basic nutrient used in feed production. The bark can be separated or it can be ground with the bark. Wheat is also grown as a feed for livestock. After the harvest, straw bales come out as a waste product.

Wheat has been the most important food item for people in almost every period. The fact that it contains starch and protein substances required for nutrition in a very suitable ratio (1/6) has caused this plant to take its place in the first place in agriculture. More than half (55%) of the land allocated for agriculture in the world is reserved for cereal plants.

The flower and seed structures of the wheatgrass family are very characteristic. The flowers are usually hermaphrodite. Rarely, it is unisexual as in maize (zea mays). Pollination occurs by means of wind. Therefore, atrophy is seen in the flower cover leaves. Male organs (stamens) are usually 3. Rarely is it six, as in rice. Ovary (ovary) reduced to 1 carpel (fruit peel). The stigma (admission organ) is two-armed and hairy. The flowers form a compound spike (spica) or panicula (compound panicle) composed of small spikelets (spicula).

Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops in the world and in our country, and it is mostly grown for oil in our country. World sunflower production has been around 23 million tons in recent years, while Çukurova is the main region in Turkey in production and cultivation areas.

Sunflower cultivation areas are increasing year by year in different regions, as it is the most suitable plant for mechanization and does not require much labor.

Sunflower oil ranks first among the vegetable oils preferred in terms of edible quality. takes. Therefore, it is cultivated at an economic level in many countries in the world.
Although it changes according to years in our country, it is between 550-600.000 hectares sunflowers are planted.

Sunflower, which belongs to the daisy family, draws attention as it is the food from which the most oil is extracted. Sunflower, which is a storehouse of vitamin E, has many benefits for human health. Tea and cream of sunflower, which is also used in alternative medicine, is also made.

Cotton, Turkey is an important cotton producing country due to its favorable ecological conditions.

Çukurova, on the other hand, undertakes most of the cotton production. In our country, cotton cultivation is carried out on approximately 750 thousand hectares of land and 850 thousand tons of fiber cotton is produced annually. The cultivation area and production amount fluctuate from year to year depending on the market conditions (domestic and international prices, payment of product prices, etc.) as well as climatic conditions.

In addition to being an important raw material for the textile and oil industry in our country, cotton is also an important product for the war industry. After the seed (raw) is used in the production of vegetable oil, the remaining pulp is of great importance as animal feed due to its high protein content.

The benefits of cotton; Cotton has an antipyretic effect. It softens the skin. It is a muscle relaxant. It accelerates blood circulation. It helps digestion by relieving indigestion.
It regulates the work of the intestine. It quickly closes open wounds.

Soybean has the opportunity to be grown both as a main product and as a secondary product in Turkey.

Soybean seeds are a valuable food source for humans and animals with their high content of oil, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral substances. Soybean seeds contain 18-24 percent oil, 35-40 percent protein, and provide organic matter and nitrogen to the soil. Most of the soybean produced in the world is broken down into soybean meal and soybean oil. At the same time, soybean oil and soybean meal are the most well-known and widely used products of soybean. Soybean oil is the most widely used edible oil after palm oil in the world, and soy flour is the main protein and energy source for animal feed.

Soybean is the plant with the highest cultivation area and production amount among oilseed plants in the world.

Approximately 80 percent of soybean production areas in Turkey are located in Adana and Mersin provinces. In 2017, 140 thousand tons of soybean production was realized on a total area of ​​316 thousand 695 decares in Turkey. Adana constitutes 59 percent of the soybean production area.