COTTON

Cotton Plant Characteristics, Soil Requirement, Planting, Maintenance and Fertilization; The fiber of cotton, which is grown for both its fiber and oil, is the basic raw material of the industry. There are 20 species belonging to the genus Gossypium from the Malvaceae family. Four of these are types of culture, two of which are new world cotton and two are old world cotton.

1. Old World Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum); It is the first cultivated cotton in the world. Both species are diploid and have 2n=26 chromosomes. They are used for short (18-23 mm) and thick, closed cocoons, low yield, mostly fullness and coarse yarn weaving purposes. Due to their resistance to cold, they are preferred instead of new world cottons in regions with unfavorable climatic conditions. However, because the fiber lengths are short, the weaving quality is not good.
2. New World Cotton (Gossypium hirsitum and Gossypium barbadense), Both species are tetraploid and have 2n=52 chromosomes. They are open cocoon. It is the most cultivated type of cotton, and American “Upland” cotton varieties are included in this group. It is grown in hot and irrigation areas. It is suitable for normal quality in textiles, except for very fine yarns and fabrics. Although we are in the seventh place in world cotton fiber production, we have to import cotton fiber every year because it is not insufficient to meet the demand of our developing weaving industry. The cotton plant is an annual, pile rooted plant with 3-5 segmented leaves arranged alternately on the stem. 2 types of buds appear in each leaf axil on the main and side branches. The central bud that comes out of the middle forms a woody branch, and the lateral bud that comes out from the side creates a fruit branch. Fruit branches develop in a zig-zag manner, perpendicular to the main stem, 1-8 flowers are formed on each.
The flower bud is called a comb, and outside each comb is 3 triangular sepals, under which are the true sepals. In addition, there are 5 petals, 40-50 stamens and ovaries with 3-5 carpels (6-10 eyes). Each eye produces a seed. The weight of a thousand grains is about 80-125 gr. Although cotton is a self-pollinating (outogam) plant, it can be pollinated by foreigners depending on the wind and insect intensity. In the regions where cotton is planted every year in Turkey, cotton is grown continuously in the same field, and very few cotton-wheat-cotton rotations are applied. Cotton; It can grow well in loamy, loamy-sand and clayey-loam alluvial soils with a pH of 6.5-7.5 with good aeration and drainage.
The best cotton planting is done with combined seeders. After the cotton seeds are planted, if the soil has become creamy with the rains, the layer should be broken. The most economical fertilization in cotton cultivation is 8 kg pure N, 5 kg pure P2O5 and 4.5 kg pure K2O. As the main cotton diseases, seedling diseases, wilt disease, angular leaf spot disease come first. Cotton pests are whitefly, aphid, red spider, leafhopper and leafhopper.

AREAS OF USING COTTON

Apart from its classical use in spinning, cotton has a wide range of uses in the chemical industry, oil industry and making artificial textile materials. This is because it is a pure source of cellulose. It is also used for treatment as combed hydrophilic cotton. The pulp of cotton is used in animal husbandry. As can be seen, cotton exports contribute to the country’s economy.

COTTON AS FIBER PLANT

Cotton is a very important fiber plant. Cotton fiber constitutes 85% of the economic value of the cotton crop. Cotton fiber is of great importance as it is used as a raw material in the textile industry. Although its share in total fiber production is formed due to the increases in synthetic and regenerated fiber production, cotton, which is an indispensable fiber plant, maintains its importance economically in Turkey and in the world, since artificial fiber cannot be obtained with cotton fiber properties. Cottons are grouped into four groups according to their fiber characteristics.

-Short Fiber: Since these cottons are short and thick, they are used for making coarse products. It covers 5-10% of the world’s total cotton production.
-Medium Fiber: It covers 80-85% of world production.

-Long Fiber: World production amounts are approximately 1.8 million tons. However, it is not used much in our country.
-Very Long Fiber: It is used in the manufacture of fine products in the textile industry. However, special climatic conditions are needed for its cultivation. In our country, only the fiber grade is taken into account in the marketing of cotton.

COTTON PRODUCTION AND COTTON PRODUCTION ZONES IN TURKEY

-Aegean Region: Gediz, Büyük-Küçük Menderes and western Mediterranean Basins
-Çukurova Region: Seyhan, Ceyhan, Asi basins
-Antalya Region: Antalya, Finike, Kalkan, Serik, Manavgat and Alanya Plains-Other Regions: South East, Meriç, Susurluk; Aras, Tigris and Euphrates basins.
Production in the Aegean Region: Our country’s best quality cotton is produced in this region. This is confirmed by the domestic and international demand for regional cotton.

Production in Çukurova Region: Production in Çukurova region has decreased due to the effect of diseases and pests that have been effective in recent years, and cotton cultivation in this region has become uneconomical. Adana province, which is one of the cotton warehouses, was the most affected province in this region.

COTTON CONSUMPTION IN TURKEY

With the increase in population, the consumption amounts, which vary according to the conditions of the day, are constantly increasing from year to year. Cotton, an industrial plant, is the raw material of weaving, textile and oil industry. Especially in our country, cotton consumption is increasing with the increase in factories in this field.

TURKEY COTTON EXPORT AND IMPORT VALUES

When our export and import figures are analyzed by years, the first important point encountered is that there are very large fluctuations according to years. While the return of cotton export is 1 $ per kilogram, cotton yarn is 3 $ and cotton apparel products are 20 $. In order to increase its export revenues, Turkey should give importance to the export of processed cotton products, not raw materials such as cotton. These fluctuations in both exports and imports are also applied and result from economic policies. The incompatibility between the prices determined by the government and the world prices causes the export of cotton raw materials to a significant extent from time to time and the importation of cotton by paying millions of dollars in some years.

COTTON INDUSTRY

It is the raw material of cotton, weaving, textile and oil industry. Cotton, which makes a great contribution to Turkey’s economy with its exports, is also of great importance as it is used as a raw material in these industries.

COTTON WOVEN INDUSTRY

The Turkish textile industry started its activities right after the establishment of the Republic, and at the first stage, investments were made by Sümerbank in the fields of weaving and spinning. Since Turkey did not have sufficient operating capacity in the 1920s and 1930s, it was a country that both exported cotton and imported processed products. The Turkish Textile Industry, which made significant progress especially in the 1950s, has become a strong country in the world markets with its own cotton processing capacity to a large extent. One of the most important and most important sectors of the Turkish industry, which is fighting to open up to the outside, is the textile sector. Raw material in cotton remains the cornerstone of this sector. In this respect, the state should give special importance to cotton production and producers.

COTTON YARN INDUSTRY

Cotton yarn industry is used both in cloth, towel, knitting and carpet weaving. High domestic cotton production, cost and sales prices, such as the quota application of some countries, cause a decrease in cotton yarn exports. The most important reason for making cotton yarn is that yarn prices in foreign markets are lower than domestic prices and domestic prices want to be balanced with foreign prices. Raw cotton exports in the past years have been replaced by yarn, cloth and apparel exports in recent years.

COTTON OIL INDUSTRY AND RAW

One of the products that have an important share in our vegetable oil production is the seed of cotton seed. Since Cigit is a by-product of cotton, it also has a positive effect on the producer’s use of planting preference in the direction of cotton, as it provides additional income to the producer. 18-20% oil is obtained from cotton seed and cotton plant gives more seed than fiber by weight. After extracting oil from cotton seed, the protein-rich pulp is used as animal feed. Most of our cotton oil exports are to Israel, and most of the imports are from the USA.

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